Geography and History of Nepal

Geography and History of Nepal

Nepal, a sovereign independent country, is bounded in the north by the Tibetan Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China and in the east, south and west by India. Stretched east to west in the southern of the Himalayas, Nepal is small landlocked country located between 26’22’ and 30’27’ North latitude and 80’4’ and 88’12’ East longitude. Average length of the country is 885 kilometers east-west and average width is 193 kilometers north-south. It has an area of 147,181 square kilometers.

The country can be tentatively divided into three geographical regions running east to west. They are:

  • The Himalayan Region
  • The Mountain Region
  • The Terai Region


The altitude of this regions ranges between 4,877m to 8,848m. It includes 8 of the 14 highest summits in the world which exceed altitude of 8,000 m including Everest (8,848m), Kanchenjunga (8,586m), Lhotse (8,516m), Makalu (8,463m), Cho-Oyu (8,201m), Dhaulagiri (8,167m), Manaslu (8,163m) Annapurna (8,091m) and others. With spare human habitation, most of the areas have a wild landscape, undisturbed tranquility of the nature rules over the land. The Himalayan region also divided into 3 regions:

  • Greater Himalaya
  • Boarder Himalaya / Trans Himalaya
  • Inner Himalaya / High Mountain Valley / Bhot


This area lies between the altitude of 610 meters to 4,877 meters above the sea-level and accounts for nearly 64 percent of total land area of the country. Mahabharat and Churia Mountain ranges are included in this region with many longitudinal fertile valleys of the principal rivers. Kathmandu valley is also situated in this very region. Likewise, the Himalayan regions are divided into 3 regions, Mountain region also divided into 3 regions:-

  • The Midland Range (Valley/Tars/Beshi)
  • Mahabharat Range
  • Churia Range


This region form a low flat land belt and includes the most fertile land and dense forest areas of the Country. It accounts 17 percent of the total land of the country. It has the width of 26 to 32 kilometers and its altitude does not exceed 305 meters above the sea level. This region is also divided into 3 regions:

  • Southern Terai Region
  • Bhabar Pradesh Region
  • Inner Terai Region


Nepal has always been an independent and sovereign county with glorious history, culture and tradition that date back to time immemorial. Before the campaign for national integration was launched by Kind Prithivi Narayan Shah the Great, Kathmandu Valley was ruled by the Malla Kings, whose contributions to art and culture are indeed great and unique. In 1768 A.D, the Shah dynasty ascended the throne of unified Nepal. After Prithivi Narayan Shah ascended the throne of Gorkha events in the history took a different turn. He conquered various warring principalities and laid the foundation of the Modern Nepal. After Prithivi Narayan Shah, the campaign of unification was given continuity by his younger son Bahadur Shah and was launched once again by the Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa, “The 1st Prime Minister of Nepal”. However, the expansion came to a halt when Nepal came into conflict with British India Company and signed the treaty of Sugauli in March 1816 AD. Another crucial chapter of history began after the emergence of Janga Bahadur Rana to power in 1846 AD. He established himself as the most powerful Prime Minster of the country or as a “de-facto ruler and made the prime Minister ship as hereditary. The revolution of 1950 brought an end to the autocratic Rana regime and democratic system was introduced. Multiparty parliamentary system was practiced for some years but the system came to an end when King Mahendra imposed party less Panchayat system in 1960 AD. The democratic movement of 1990 reinstated the multi-party democratic constitution in the country on 9th November 1990. Now Nepal is a stalwart of global peace and disbarments. Nepal is a member of the UNO and the founder members of South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC). Nepal has been declared as Federal Democratic Republic by the First Constitutional Assembly on 28th May 2008.